The pathogenesis of endometriosis is complex and involves many factors, including the immune system, hormones, genes, and stem cells. There are many theories about how endometriosis develops, but no single theory can explain all aspects of the disease.
Here are some of the theories that have been studied:
1. Retrograde menstruation theory: This theory suggests that menstrual blood flows backward through the fallopian tubes and into the pelvic cavity, where it implants and grows outside the uterus.
2. Coelomic metaplasia theory: This theory suggests that endometriosis arises from the transformation of cells in the lining of the pelvic cavity into endometrial cells.
3. Lymphatic and vascular dissemination theory: This theory suggests that endometrial cells are transported through the lymphatic and vascular systems to other parts of the body, where they implant and grow.
4. Genetic theory: This theory suggests that genetic factors play a role in the development of endometriosis.
5. Immune dysfunction theory: This theory suggests that immune system dysfunction may contribute to the development of endometriosis.
6. Stem cell theory: This theory suggests that endometrial stem cells may be involved in the development of endometriosis. It’s important to note that while these theories have been studied, there is no single theory that can explain all aspects of endometriosis.
The pathogenesis of endometriosis is multifactorial and involves a wide array of potential factors. In the future, the concept of endometriosis is likely to incorporate elements from all the pathogenetic theories. Further research is needed to better understand the pathogenesis of endometriosis and to develop more effective treatments for this disease.
Lamceva, J.; Uljanovs, R.; Strumfa, I. The Main Theories on the Pathogenesis of Endometriosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24, 4254. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054254